About the Book
Radiation is a type of energy that spreads as waves or energized particles from a source. Natural radioactive materials are found in its crust, in the floors and walls of our houses, schools or workplaces, and in the food we eat and drink. In the air we breathe, there are radioactive gases. Our own bodies-muscles, bones, and tissues-contain naturally occurring radioactive materials. Man has also been exposed to natural radiation both from the earth and from beyond the world. The radiation that we receive from outer space is called cosmic radiation or cosmic rays. High-energy radiation involving neutrons, ions, and electromagnetic waves can alter the microstructure and properties of metallic materials in a variety of ways. It is extremely important to understand these effects for a number of reasons. High throughput nuclear reactors with enhanced efficiency and low levels of nuclear waste can be a part of the solution to the world?s increasing energy needs. The design and construction of such reactors would need a profound theoretical and practical understanding of the effects of high radiation doses on the structure and properties of the materials used for their construction (mostly metallic alloys).
This compendium presents original research, as well as reviews on radiation effects in metals alloys and metallic multilayers, including experiments using both ion beam and neutron irradiation. Understanding radiation damage effects in materials, used in various irradiation environments, has been an ongoing challenge for several decades. The complexity stems from the fundamental particle?solid interactions involving both spatial and temporal length scales and the damage recovery dynamics after the collision cascades. The book focuses on effects of radiation on microstructure, mechanical properties of metallic materials; methods of characterizing radiation effects, including transmission and scanning electron microscopy, sans, synchrotron radiation, x-ray diffraction, etc.
It is hard to imagine a world without semiconductors. Since the first practical device, a transistor, was built in 1947, activity in this area has flourished. The Si, GaAs, and InP based semiconductor devices have improved our lives significantly during the last century. Wide-bandgap semiconductors, such as ZnO, SiC, GaN, Ga2O3, and diamond, are believed to be the next generation semiconductors because of their excellent physical and chemical properties. These semiconductors are promising candidates for fabrication of optoelectronic devices and semiconductor electronics, such as light emitters, solar cells, solar blind detectors, high-power electronics, gas sensors, high-power microwave transistors, and microelectromechanical system (MEMS). We are now surrounded by semiconductors, and rely on their use in everyday commercial devices. The expanse of the semiconductor industry is testimony to the value of the research into their fundamental physics, materials and technology.
This book covers a broad range of aspects of current research including the latest advances in theory and modelling, developments of new materials and devices, and studies of fundamental phenomena. It is intended to provide current insights, new achievements, breakthroughs and future trends in such diverse fields as microelectronics, energy conversion and storage, communications, biotechnology, (photo) catalysis, nano- and thin-film technology, and hybrid and composite materials. The book provides the readers with an overview of the recent achievements in the field of semiconductor based materials, physics, and devices. This monograph will serve as a valuable reference for semiconductor researchers.