About the Book
"In a scientific sense, a chemical process is a method or means of somehow changing one or more chemicals or chemical compounds. Such a chemical process can occur by itself or be caused by an outside force, and involves a chemical reaction of some sort. In an “engineering” sense, a chemical process is a method intended to be used in manufacturing or on an industrial scale (see Industrial process) to change the composition of chemical(s) or material(s), usually using technology similar or related to that used in chemical plants or the chemical industry.
In the chemical industry process, amorphous solids (powder and grain) and fluids (liquids and gases) are put into devices (containers) under certain conditions (temperature, pressure and catalysts), which perform chemical alterations (chemical technology). The elements that constitute these process facilities (process units) are stationary equipments (towers, vessels and heat exchangers) and revolving equipments/dynamic equipments (pumps, compressors, and centrifugal machines). In the chemical industry process, the measure against corrosion, which is caused by corrosion factors and reaction by-products that are unpreventable in the reaction process, frequently becomes an issue. When faced with corrosion (deterioration) of materials, people involved in the chemical industry may often have to consider how to reduce or prevent corrosion. Examination of anticorrosion measures is to be based on the factors of construction design, environmental control, material selection and the combination of the factors.
Petroleum refining begins with the distillation, or fractionation, of crude oils into separate hydrocarbon groups. The resultant products are directly related to the characteristics of the crude oil being processed. Most of these products of distillation are further converted into more useable products by changing their physical and molecular structures through cracking, reforming and other conversion processes. These products are subsequently subjected to various treatment and separation processes, such as extraction, hydrotreating and sweetening, in order to produce finished products. Whereas the simplest refineries are usually limited to atmospheric and vacuum distillation, integrated refineries incorporate fractionation, conversion, treatment and blending with lubricant, heavy fuels and asphalt manufacturing; they may also include petrochemical processing.
Today’s global economy is highly dependent on fossil fuels with oil being the most important feedstock. The scenario of depleting oil reserves therefore threatens the basis of most of our businesses and has a potentially huge impact on our daily life. At the same time conversion of fossil fuels into carbon dioxide is considered a big threat to our climate. These are the main reasons for the proposal to replace fossil fuels with renewable biomass and close global carbon cycles. This book takes a closer look at the probable consequences of this raw material change, specifically for the chemical industry: what is the status, what are the issues and what are the opportunities? It might also inspire young researchers to tackle some really important challenges that will arise in the future.
This book has been written in easy and fluent language expressive and self-explanatory labelled diagrams, concise but not too brief, written to the point starting from fundamentals and finishing to the most advanced and current concepts. All diagrams have been provided with detailed legends. Some diagrams have been drawn the author himself from the original source, while the remaining ones are quoted from the authentic works."