About the Book
Information processing in the brain occurs mainly through electrical impulses in neurons that trigger neurotransmitters and affect the electrical activity of other neurons. This mechanism is regulated by a number of factors and is the primary focus of medications for the treatment of mental illness. The study of electrical activity in neurons (neurophysiology) is therefore at the core of how the brain processes information and how drugs affect mental functioning, and is fundamental to neuropsychopharmacology. In this area, scientists study central and peripheral nervous systems at the level of whole bodies, cellular networks, single cells, or even subcellular compartments. The unifying aspect of this wide-ranging discipline is the interest in processes that contribute to the production and distribution of electrical impulses within and between neurons. This topic is important not only for our understanding of fascinating processes driving human thought, but also for our ability to diagnose and treat nervous system malfunction disorders. There are several facets of neurophysiology that stand out as having a significant potential for neuropsychopharmacology in the future. These cover the spectrum of neurophysiology, from biological neurophysiology to behavioral and cognitive neurophysiology. Integration between these fields is a growing and increasingly powerful feature of neurophysiology.
This book emphasizes the importance of neurophysiology to neuropsychopharmacology now and in the future. It deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of diseases involving central, peripheral and autonomous nervous system. The book covers studies on molecular, cellular, and systemic neurophysiology, functional neuromorphology, neuropharmacology, and neurochemistry. Topics on neuromuscular physiology, neural mechanisms of higher nervous activity and behavior, neurophysiology, medical aspects of neurophysiology, and modeling of neural functions are also accepted. Compared to the role that it plays, and will play, in neuropsychopharmacology, neurophysiology has been. This book will serve as a most valuable resource for neurochemists and other scientists as well.
Neurogenetics is a branch of genetics that analyzes the effect of genes on the structure and function of the brain and peripheral nervous systems. Because neurogenetics studies concern genes that decide our individuality, and also diseases and dysfunctions, discovery of normal and disordered genes in the nervous system involves further knowledge and thoughtful consideration. There can be no doubt that evolution has changed our understanding of pathways that mediate brain disorders. Over the last two decades, significant progress has been made in terms of precise clinical diagnosis and comprehension of the genes and mechanisms involved in a large number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Likewise, new methods and analytical approaches, including genome array studies and ?next-generation? sequencing technologies, are bringing us deeper insights into the subtle complexities of the genetic architecture that determines our risks for these disorders. Neurological disorders comprise a variety of complex diseases affecting both the central and peripheral nervous systems and are increasingly recognized as major causes of death and disability worldwide. Nowadays, several different mutations in genes involved in the normal function of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves or muscles have been associated with many neurological disorders either, acting alone or in combination with environmental factors. Over the past few years, the application of the different high-throughput approaches, also known as omics approaches (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), has developed rapidly and enabled a much greater understanding in the etiology of many neurological disorders. There is considerable interest in the role of genetics in neurological diseases. Neurogenetics may serve as a foundation for earlier, molecular diagnosis, fundamental neuroscience and future drug development.
This book compiles state of the art reviews on research that capitalizes on human genetics to solve neurologic problems. The book presents a wide-ranging overview of the genetics of some common neurological disorders and the ethical implications for the individual and society that this fast moving field holds. This book will serve as a most valuable resource for neurochemists and other scientists alike.