About the Book
Information processing in the brain occurs mainly through electrical impulses in neurons that trigger neurotransmitters and affect the electrical activity of other neurons. This mechanism is regulated by a number of factors and is the primary focus of medications for the treatment of mental illness. The study of electrical activity in neurons (neurophysiology) is therefore at the core of how the brain processes information and how drugs affect mental functioning, and is fundamental to neuropsychopharmacology. In this area, scientists study central and peripheral nervous systems at the level of whole bodies, cellular networks, single cells, or even subcellular compartments. The unifying aspect of this wide-ranging discipline is the interest in processes that contribute to the production and distribution of electrical impulses within and between neurons. This topic is important not only for our understanding of fascinating processes driving human thought, but also for our ability to diagnose and treat nervous system malfunction disorders. There are several facets of neurophysiology that stand out as having a significant potential for neuropsychopharmacology in the future. These cover the spectrum of neurophysiology, from biological neurophysiology to behavioral and cognitive neurophysiology. Integration between these fields is a growing and increasingly powerful feature of neurophysiology.
This book emphasizes the importance of neurophysiology to neuropsychopharmacology now and in the future. It deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of diseases involving central, peripheral and autonomous nervous system. The book covers studies on molecular, cellular, and systemic neurophysiology, functional neuromorphology, neuropharmacology, and neurochemistry. Topics on neuromuscular physiology, neural mechanisms of higher nervous activity and behavior, neurophysiology, medical aspects of neurophysiology, and modeling of neural functions are also accepted. Compared to the role that it plays, and will play, in neuropsychopharmacology, neurophysiology has been. This book will serve as a most valuable resource for neurochemists and other scientists as well.
Neurogenetics is a branch of genetics that analyzes the effect of genes on the structure and function of the brain and peripheral nervous systems. Because neurogenetics studies concern genes that decide our individuality, and also diseases and dysfunctions, discovery of normal and disordered genes in the nervous system involves further knowledge and thoughtful consideration. There can be no doubt that evolution has changed our understanding of pathways that mediate brain disorders. Over the last two decades, significant progress has been made in terms of precise clinical diagnosis and comprehension of the genes and mechanisms involved in a large number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Likewise, new methods and analytical approaches, including genome array studies and ?next-generation? sequencing technologies, are bringing us deeper insights into the subtle complexities of the genetic architecture that determines our risks for these disorders. Neurological disorders comprise a variety of complex diseases affecting both the central and peripheral nervous systems and are increasingly recognized as major causes of death and disability worldwide. Nowadays, several different mutations in genes involved in the normal function of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves or muscles have been associated with many neurological disorders either, acting alone or in combination with environmental factors. Over the past few years, the application of the different high-throughput approaches, also known as omics approaches (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), has developed rapidly and enabled a much greater understanding in the etiology of many neurological disorders. There is considerable interest in the role of genetics in neurological diseases. Neurogenetics may serve as a foundation for earlier, molecular diagnosis, fundamental neuroscience and future drug development.
This book compiles state of the art reviews on research that capitalizes on human genetics to solve neurologic problems. The book presents a wide-ranging overview of the genetics of some common neurological disorders and the ethical implications for the individual and society that this fast moving field holds. This book will serve as a most valuable resource for neurochemists and other scientists alike.
Neurochemistry refers to the chemical processes that exist in the brain and nervous systems. This portion of the study discusses how neurochemicals affect the neural operation network. In order to communicate, the brain transmits various chemical information through neurons. The main role of neurochemistry practices takes place in the brain, allowing it to perform various actions. The brain foundation is a bit different from man to man, and a number of things can play a role in the levels of different neurotransmitters in the brain. It is thought that differences in brain chemistry may be responsible for a number of behavioral disorders. Nervous system cells interact with each other through chemical messengers, called neurotransmitters that travel through synapses to activate receptors in post-synaptic cells. The brain also develops molecules that function on receptors but do not meet the criteria for neurotransmitters. Because immune cells express receptors that can be activated by these neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, the nervous system may affect lymphocyte activity.
This book is aimed to compile of high-quality original findings in areas relevant to molecular chemical and cell biological aspects of the nervous system. It also contains neurochemical methodology in research on nervous system structure and function. The book compiles original research and clinical research results, perceptive reviews of significant problem areas in the neurosciences. The book presents comprehensive reviews in different areas contributed by leading experts in their associated fields. Neurodegeneration and neuronal diseases are featured prominently and are a recurring theme throughout most chapters. This book will serve as a most valuable resource for neurochemists and other scientists alike.
Neuroplasticity can be seen as a general umbrella term that relates to the brain's ability to alter, adjust, and adapt both structure and function during life and in response to experience. Just as individual differences contribute to the observed variation in brain structure and function. A basic principle of neuronal plasticity is that synchronous or asynchronous activity in neurons can result to the strengthening or weakening of shared synapses. A growing number of researches have shown the brain's remarkable ability to reorganize itself in response to different sensory experiences. The traditional view of this dynamic nature of the brain is that it is often restricted to brief epochs during early development.
This book will provide state of the art research and reviews indicating that mechanisms of neuroplasticity are extremely variable across individuals and throughout the lifetime. This variability is attributable to several factors including inhibitory network function, neuromodulator systems, age, sex, brain disease, and psychological traits. The book is aimed to provide an overview of the many ways new neuroscience can inform treatment protocols to empower and motivate clients to make the lifestyle choices that could help build brain power and could increase adherence to healthy lifestyle changes that have also been associated with simultaneously enhancing vigorous longevity, health, happiness, and wellness. It will also provide information on how neuroplasticity can be manipulated in both the healthy and diseased brain. It also proposes a better understanding of the individual differences that exist within the various mechanisms that govern experience-dependent neuroplasticity will improve our ability to harness brain plasticity for the development of personalized translational strategies for learning and recovery following brain injury or disease. The focus of this book is to review the scientific foundation and recent progress in research of neuroplasticity; relate that to the various ways these findings can influence treatment; propose ways treatment protocols could increase adherence to brain plasticity based therapeutics; and suggest research questions going forward. This book will serve as a most valuable resource for neurochemists and other scientists as well.