About the Book
The rapid growth of neurosciences necessitates constant changes across a broad variety of disciplines, eventually converging towards an overall understanding of the central nervous system, its functioning as well as its possible mechanisms for damage and recovery. Experimental and clinical work is making tremendous progress. It is useful to assess developments in the field of neuroscience research in the directions and topics of study over a given period of time. This knowledge enables stakeholders to easily recognize the most important studies and to integrate the latest findings into research-based education.
This book will focus on new trends in neuroscience, compiling research and reviewed articles on topics ranging from basic to applied and clinical research. It intends to cover advanced research on brain functions, and more generally on the CNS, highlighting in particular technological advances and translational studies. It will cover various aspects of neurophysiology, neuroimaging, neuropathology and clinical neurology. The book will present disseminating and communicating scientific knowledge and impactful discoveries to researchers, academics, clinicians and the public worldwide. New research fields have recently emerged, e.g. "neuroeconomics" and "neuroenergetics." In addition, and critically, in information-generating world, new informatics-based methods are being developed to store the enormous amount of new ?big data? in a systematic manner, for data-preservation, data-mining and for extracting key information from these data. And, importantly, theoretical and computational approaches are being developed for integrating this diverse data and for deriving principles of brain operations that may otherwise lie hidden within the intricacies of brain circuits. As the field is growing fast, we seek to integrate and cross-link studies and citations in related subfields, providing an overview of the state-of-the-art in these fields and the ways in which they complement each other.
The human brain is the best example of the unsurpassed nature of the complex universe. It's the most cerebral and strong part of the body. The convergence of artificial intelligence and neuroscience is the front line of any researcher today. Neuronal rhythms are universal features of brain physiology and are closely associated with cognitive processing. However, the relationship between the physiological processes that create these rhythms and the rhythm-related functions remains mysterious. Our perception of chronic pain has improved significantly in the last decade or so, but researchers, with the exception of triptans, have yet to use modern medical methods to effectively produce effective medicines. The ideal analgesic for chronic pain should exceed the effectiveness of other medications, have minimal side effects, be readily available and affordable, improve the condition, be reliable and, where possible, be preventive. However, existing treatments for most chronic pain disorders are fairly unsuccessful and are used since there are few alternatives. In fact, the field is beginning to re-evaluate the use of opioids for chronic pain because long-term benefits are for the most part limited, the drugs can produce chronic changes in the brain, and opioid use can result in addiction. Neuronal activity in the brain generates synchronous oscillations of the Local Field Potential (LFP). The traditional analyses of the LFPs are based on decomposing the signal into simpler components, such as sinusoidal harmonics. However, a common drawback of such methods is that the decomposition primitives are usually presumed from the onset, which may bias our understanding of the signal?s structure.
This book investigates the contributions of rhythms to basic cognitive computations and to major cognitive functions. The book is intended to cover the physiology underlying brain rhythms that plays an essential role in how these rhythms facilitate some cognitive operations.
Neurodevelopmental disorders are a category of disorders that influence the development of the central nervous system. These can include developmental brain disorder, which may manifest as neuropsychiatric disorders or impaired motor control, learning, language or non-verbal communication. Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are severe, inherited conditions characterized by impaired brain development and learning, social interaction and behavioral deficiencies. Genetic predisposition appears to interact with environmental factors to produce the onset of the disease. In the last decade genomic analysis on NDDs advanced the knowledge of the genetic causes of these disorders: most of the genes identified were not predicted from known biology, and almost all of them engage in neurodevelopmental processes. However, the same studies revealed an unexpected outcome regarding the molecular etiology: many of the same susceptibility genes as well as molecular pathways are emerging across hitherto unrelated disorders- such as autism and schizophrenia- challenging how we conceptualize these conditions. These new discoveries call for the establishment of additional criteria for the classification of the genes and related phenotypes.
This book presents recent advances in neurodevelopmental disorders from genes to systems, in single conditions and across different phenotypes, and reports the newest treatments in use. The book covers a broad range of issues, populations and domains: diagnosis; incidence and prevalence; educational, pharmacological, behavioral and cognitive behavioral, mindfulness, and psychosocial interventions across the lifespan. Animal models of basic research that advance understanding and treatment of intellectual and developmental disabilities are also included. Recognized experts in the field discuss recent findings in molecular studies, in vivo imaging, neuropsychology, neuropharmacology and computational neuroscience. This multidisciplinary approach enriches the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of NDDs with the perspective of revealing the biological signs of the disorders and identifying new therapeutics.
Neuroendocrinology refers to the study of the relationship between nervous and endocrine systems. Neuroendocrinology is a field of study that investigates the relationship between the central nervous system and the endocrine glands. The neuroendocrine system regulates a variety of important physiological processes, including biological rhythms, stress, social activity, appetite, development, and reproduction. The field of neuroendocrinology has developed from its original emphasis on the regulation of hypothalamus pituitary hormone secretion to include numerous reciprocal connections between the central nervous system (CNS) and the endocrine systems in the management of homeostasis and physiological responses to environmental stimuli. Although many of these concepts are relatively recent, the intimate interaction of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland was recognized more than a century ago. Over the past decades, with the introduction of many powerful bio-techniques and novel research ideas, considerable progress has been achieved in understanding the neuroendocrine system and neurohormones. In addition to the classically-identified neurohormones, many neuropeptides are also identified within the brain that influence a wide range of social and non-social behaviors, and within varieties of tissues to exert autocrine, paracrine and even intracrine functions, represented by brain-gut peptides and immunological peptides from the thymus.
The present book is a compilation of wide range contributions that illustrates various facets of current neuroendocrinological investigations. Correspondingly, modern neuroendocrinology embraces a wide range of topics from genetic and epigenetic features of neuroendocrine cells, clarification of receptors and their signaling mechanism, identification of novel neuropeptides and their functions, neuroendocrine basis of social behaviors and cognition, interaction between neuroendocrine/endocrine system and other organ systems, reciprocal brain-body communication, neuroendocrine regulation under varieties of physiological and pathological conditions, and computational neuroendocrinology.