About the Book
Political science is the systematic study of the state, nation, government and its public policies. It deals extensively with the analysis of political systems, the theoretical and practical applications to politics, and the examination of political behavior. A political system is a system of politics and government. It is usually compared to the legal system, economic system, cultural system, and other social systems. The scope of political science is vast and experts have divided the field of political science into five sub-disciplines that are political theory, public administration, comparative politics, international relations, and public law. It needs to be noted that these sub-disciplines cover the entire gamut of the modern political economy and provide the basis for the study and understanding of how the global political economy works. The study of the matters concerning the allocation and distribution as well as the transfer of power is one of the main preoccupations of political scientists. Each society must have a political system in order to maintain recognized procedures for allocating valued resources. In large complex societies, many decisions must be made about the duties and responsibilities of citizens and also about the rights and privileges.
This book contains contributions of the most important political scientists and researchers around the globe. The book is comprised of nine chapters. Research on prejudice has shown that with whom we surround ourselves matters for intergroup attitudes, but these studies have paid little attention to the content of those interactions. Studies on political socialization and deliberation have focused on the content of interaction by examining the transmission of norms as well as the direct consequences of political discussion on attitudes and behavior. However, the first chapter of this book has not focused on prejudice as a potential consequence. This chapter combines these approaches to examine if political discussions with peers during adolescence matter for prejudice. Political systems, or systems of governance, are as old as human settlements themselves. Their evolution and functions are inextricably linked with the societal need to maintain some degree of order; avoid disruptive deviance; ensure security; and maintain, or even extend if considered necessary, the territorial boundaries of a group, tribe, or nation. The causal illusion is a cognitive bias that results in the perception of causality where there is no supporting evidence. Fourth chapter shows that people selectively exhibit the bias, especially in those situations where it favors their current worldview as revealed by their political orientation. From the dawn of the civilized life, human beings have always organized themselves into groups and large formations, for a variety of collective purposes ? social, cultural, economic and political. A party is an organization for collective life. Indeed organized society alone is a party. Political party system is a modern phenomenon. Therefore, fifth chapter sheds light on philosophy of political party and constitutionalism. The main aim of sixth chapter is to observe the possible effects that being exposed to political disparagement humor has on trust in politicians. Chapters 7-9 are aimed to focus on the relationship between students? civic and political experiences and their self-regulation in school; political orientation and public attributions for the causes and solutions of physical inactivity in Canada; and alteration of political belief by non-invasive brain stimulation. This book illustrates major trends in political science research and frames the progress of research agendas in comparative politics. Volume 2:
Although political science, like all modern sciences, involves empirical investigation, it generally does not produce precise measurements and predictions. This has led some scholars to question whether the discipline can be accurately described as a science. The importance of political science lies in the fact that all of us live within political systems and we are affected by the changes in the global political economy. With the advent of globalization, there has been a concomitant rise in the interest taken by the people of the world in understanding the political systems of other countries. Hence, political scientists become valued and important as they provide the lens through which we can understand the global political economy. Meta-analysis is a quantitative technique that uses specific measures (e.g., an effect size) to indicate the strength of variable relationships for the studies included in the analysis. The ever-growing body of empirical insights in political science constitutes a major challenge for scholars in almost all areas of research. Meta-analytic techniques, the ?case survey? method in particular, allow to systematically and rigorously synthesize previous case-based research by drawing on the richness of the case material, on different researchers and research designs, and at the same time allowing for a much wider generalization than from single cases.
The book contains studies and reviews on existing applications of case-based meta-analytic methods in political science and related fields and critically assesses strengths and limitations of the approach for political science. Comprised of eleven chapters, the book provides an introduction to the meta-analysis literature and discusses the challenges of applying meta-analysis to human dimensions research. Specifically, it reviews the definitions of meta-analysis techniques, the steps in conducting a meta-analysis, and the advantages and disadvantages of meta-analysis. The meta-analysis can help identify which questions have already been answered and which remain to be answered, which outcome measures or populations are most likely to yield significant results, and which variants of the planned intervention are likely to be most powerful. This book will be of interest to graduate students, policy makers, as well as researchers in political science.